This gland is a critical part of the endocrine system. It has a front and back section and each part produce a different hormone.
The anterior (front) portion of the pituitary gland produces growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). These are the hormones that controls blood sugar levels, muscle mass, fertility, how the body responses to stress, and the rate as to how the body uses energy.
The posterior (back) portion of the gland houses oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Oxytocin stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth and also stimulates the release of breast milk. ADH is responsible for controlling water that is released by the kidneys which ultimately regulates the balance of water within the body.